MASS RACIAL VIOLENCE IN AMERICA

Nativist period 1700s–1860[edit]
For information about riots worldwide, see List of riots.
1763: Pontiac’s War
1811: German Coast Uprising (Louisiana)
1829: Cincinnati riots of 1829 (Cincinnati, Ohio). Rioting against African Americans results in thousands leaving for Canada.
1829: Charlestown anti-Catholic riots (Charlestown, Massachusetts)
1831: Nat Turner’s slave rebellion (Southampton County, Virginia)
1834: Ursuline Convent riots (Charlestown, Massachusetts, near Boston)
1834: New York anti-abolitionist riots (1834)
1835: Snow Riot (Washington, D.C.)
1835: Five Points Riot (New York City)
1836: Cincinnati riots of 1836 (Cincinnati, Ohio)
1841: Cincinnati riots of 1841 (Cincinnati, Ohio)
1844: Philadelphia Nativist Riots (May 6–8/July 5–8)
1851: Hoboken anti-German riot
1855: Bloody Monday (Louisville, Kentucky, anti-German riots)
Civil War period 1861–1865[edit]
1863: Detroit race riot
1863: New York City draft riots, Irish against blacks
Post–Civil War and Reconstruction period: 1865–1877[edit]
1866: New Orleans massacre of 1866 (New Orleans, Louisiana)
1866: Memphis riots of 1866 (Memphis, Tennessee), mostly ethnic Irish against African Americans
1868: Pulaski riot (Pulaski, Tennessee), whites against blacks
1868: St. Bernard Parish massacre, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, whites against blacks
1868: Opelousas massacre (Opelousas, Louisiana), whites against blacks
1868: Camilla race riot (Camilla, Georgia), whites against blacks
1868: Ward Island riot
Irish and German-American indigent immigrants, temporarily interned at Wards Island by the Commissioners of Emigration, begin rioting following an altercation between two residents, resulting in thirty men seriously wounded and around sixty arrested.[37]
1870: Eutaw massacre, whites against blacks
1870: Laurens, South Carolina
1870: Kirk-Holden war: Alamance County, North Carolina
Federal troops, led by Col. Kirk and requested by NC governor Holden, were sent to extinguish racial violence. Holden was eventually impeached because of the offensive.
1870: New York City orange riot
1871: Meridian race riot of 1871, Meridian, Mississippi, whites against blacks
1871: Second New York City orange riot
1871: Los Angeles anti-Chinese riot, mixed Mexican and white mob killed 17–20 Chinese in the largest mass lynching in U.S. history
1871: Scranton coal riot
Violence occurs between striking members of a miners’ union in Scranton, Pennsylvania when Welsh miners attack Irish and German-American miners who chose to leave the union and accept the terms offered by local mining companies.[38]
1873: Colfax, Louisiana, white Democrats against black Republicans
1874: Vicksburg, Mississippi
1874: Battle of Liberty Place, New Orleans, Louisiana[39] After contested gubernatorial election, Democrats took over state buildings for three days
1874: Coushatta massacre, Coushatta, Louisiana, white Democrats against black Republicans
1875: Yazoo City, Mississippi
1875: Clinton, Mississippi
1876: Statewide violence in South Carolina
1876: Hamburg massacre, Hamburg, South Carolina
1876: Ellenton riot, Ellenton, South Carolina
Jim Crow period: 1877–1914[edit]
Further information: Nadir of American race relations
1885: Rock Springs, Wyoming
1885: Tacoma, Washington
1886: Pittsburgh riot
1886: Seattle, Washington
1887: Denver riot of 1887
1887: Hells Canyon Massacre
In one of the largest civil disturbances in the city’s history, fighting between Swedish, Hungarian and Polish immigrants resulted in the shooting death of one man and several others were injured before it was broken up by police.[40]
1887: Thibodaux massacre, Thibodaux, Louisiana—strike of 10,000 sugar-cane workers was opposed by whites, who rioted and killed an estimated 50 African Americans
1891: New Orleans anti-Italian riot
A lynch mob storms a local jail and hangs 11 Italians following the acquittal of several Sicilian immigrants alleged to be involved in the murder of New Orleans police chief David Hennessy.
1891: 1st Omaha race riot
10,000 white people storm the local courthouse to beat and lynch Joe Coe, alleged to have raped a white girl.
1894: Buffalo, New York riot of 1894
Two groups of Irish and Italian-Americans are arrested by police after fighting following a barroom brawl. After the mob is dispersed by police, five Italians are arrested while two others are sent to a local hospital.[41]
1894: Bituminous coal miners’ strike
Much of the violence in this national strike was not specifically racial. In Iowa, where employees of Consolidation Coal Company (Iowa) refused to join the strike, armed confrontation between strikers and strike breakers took on racial overtones because the majority of Consolidation’s employees were African American. The National Guard was mobilized to avert open warfare.[42][43][44]
1895: 1895 New Orleans dockworkers riot
1898: Wilmington race riot
A group of Democrats sought to remove African-Americans from the political scene, and went about this by launching a campaign of accusing African-American men of sexually assaulting white women. About five hundred white men attacked and burned Alex Manly’s office, a newspaper editor who suggested African-American men and white women had consensual relationships. Fourteen African-Americans were killed.[45]
1898: Lake City, South Carolina
1898: Greenwood County, South Carolina
1899: Newburg, New York riot
Angered about hiring of African-American workers, a group of 80-100 Arab laborers attack African Americans near the Freeman & Hammond brick yard, with numerous men injured on both sides.[46]
1900: New Orleans, Louisiana: Robert Charles riots
1900: New York City
1902: New York City
Anti-Semitic riots initiated by German factory workers and city policemen against thousands of Jews attending Jacob Joseph’s funeral
1906: Little Rock, Arkansas
Started after a white police officer in Argenta (North Little Rock) killed a black musician, and another black was killed; racial tensions rose with exchange of gunfire, resulting in half a block of buildings burned down; whites rioted and some blacks fled the city.[47]
1906: Atlanta riots, Georgia
In September after two newspapers printed stories about African-American men assaulting white women anti-African-American violence broke out. Roughly 10,000 white men and boys took the street, resulting in the deaths of 25 to 100 African-Americans, along with hundreds injured.[45]
1906: Wahalak & Scooba, Mississippi[48]
1907: Bellingham riots, Washington
1908: Springfield, Illinois
1909: Greek Town riot
A successful Greek immigrant community in South Omaha, Nebraska is burnt to the ground by ethnic whites and its residents are forced to leave town.[49]
1910: Nationwide riots following the heavyweight championship fight between Jack Johnson and Jim Jeffries in Reno, Nevada on July 4
1910 Slocum, Texas massacre, between eight and two hundred black residents around Slocum, Texas were killed by hundreds of armed white men. Eleven white men were arrested, none went to trial.[50]
War and Inter-War period: 1914–1945[edit]
See also: African-American veterans lynched after World War I
Further information: Nadir of American race relations
1917: East St. Louis, Illinois
On July 1st, an African-American man was rumored to have killed a white man. Violence against African-American continued for a week, resulting in estimations of 40 to 200 dead African-Americans. In addition, almost 6,000 African-Americans lost their homes during the riots then fled East St. Louis.[45]
1917: Chester, Pennsylvania. The 1917 Chester race riot took place over four days in July. White hostility toward southern blacks moving to Chester for wartime economy jobs erupted into a four day melee sparked by the stabbing of a white man by a black man. Mobs of hundreds of people fought throughout the city and the violence resulted in 7 deaths, 28 gunshot wounds, 360 arrests and hundreds of hospitalizations.[51]
1917: Lexington, Kentucky. Tensions already existed between black and white populations over the lack of affordable housing in the city during the Great Migration. On the day of the riot, September 1, the Colored A.&M. Fair (one of the largest African American fairs in the South) on Georgetown Pike attracted more African Americans from the surrounding area into the city. Also during this time, some National Guard troops were camping on the edge of the city. Three troops passed in front of an African American restaurant and shoved some people on the sidewalk. A fight broke out, reinforcements for the troops and citizens both appeared, and soon a riot had begun. The Kentucky National Guard was summoned, and once the riot had ended, armed soldiers on foot and mount and police patrolled the streets. All other National Guard troops were barred from the city streets until the fair ended.[52]
1917: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1917: Houston, Texas
Red Summer of 1919. Tension in the summer of 1919 stemmed significantly from white soldiers returning from World War I and finding that their jobs had been taken by African-American veterans.[45]
1919: Elaine Race Riot (Elaine, Arkansas)
1919: Washington, D.C.
1919: Jenkins County, Georgia, riot of 1919
1919: Macon, Mississippi, race riot
1919: Chicago Race Riot of 1919
1919: Baltimore riot of 1919
1919: Omaha Race Riot of 1919
1919: Charleston, South Carolina
1919: Longview, Texas
1919: Knoxville Riot of 1919 (Knoxville, Tennessee)
1920: Ocoee Massacre (Ocoee, Florida)
1920: West Frankfort, Illinois
1921: Tulsa race riot (Tulsa, Oklahoma)
Between May 31st and June 1st, a young white woman accused an African American man of grabbing her arm in an elevator. The man Dick Rowland was arrested and police launched an investigation. A mob of armed white men gathered outside the Tulsa County Courthouse, where gunfire ensued. During the violence, 1,250 homes were destroyed and roughly 6,000 African-Americans were imprisoned after the Oklahoma National Guard was called in. The state of Oklahoma reports that twenty-six African-Americans died along with 10 whites.
1923: Rosewood Massacre (Rosewood, Florida)
1927: Little Rock, Arkansas
Lynching of John Carter, a suspect in a murder, was followed by rioting by 5,000 whites in the city, who destroyed a black business area[53]
1927 Poughkeepsie, New York
A wave of civil unrest, violence, and vandalism by local White mobs against Blacks, as well Greek, Jewish, Chinese and Puerto Rican targets in the community.[citation needed]
1930: Watsonville, California
1935: Harlem, Manhattan, New York
1943: Detroit, Michigain
In late June a fistfight broke out between an African-American man and a white man at an amusement park named Belle Isle. The violence escalated from there and led to three days of intense fighting, in which 6,000 United States Army troops were brought in. This resulted in twenty-five African-Americans dying, along with nine white deaths and a total of seven hundred injured persons.[45]
1943: Harlem, Manhattan, New York
1943: Los Angeles, California
1944: Guam
Civil rights movement: 1955–1973[edit]
1963[edit]
Birmingham riot of 1963; Birmingham, Alabama – May
Cambridge riot of 1963; Cambridge, Maryland – June
1964[edit]
Chester School Protests; Chester, Pennsylvania – April
Rochester 1964 race riot; Rochester, New York – July
New York City 1964 riot; New York City – July
Philadelphia 1964 race riot; Philadelphia – August
Jersey City 1964 race riot, August 2–4, Jersey City, New Jersey
Paterson 1964 race riot, August 11–13, Paterson, New Jersey
Elizabeth 1964 race riot, August 11–13, Elizabeth, New Jersey
Chicago 1964 race riot, Dixmoor riot, August 16–17, Chicago
1965[edit]
Watts riots; Los Angeles, California – August
This predominately African-American neighborhood exploded with violence from August 11th to August 17th after the arrest of 21-year old Marquette Frye, a black motorist who was arrested by a white highway patrolman. During his arrest a crowd had gathered and a fight broke out between the crowd and the police, escalating to the point in which rocks and concrete were thrown at police. 30,000 people were recorded participating in the riots and fights with police, which left thirty four people dead, 1,000 injured and 4,000 arrested.
1966[edit]
Hough riots; Cleveland, Ohio – July
Division Street riots; Chicago, Illinois – June
Marquette Park riot; Chicago, Illinois – August
Hunters Point riot; San Francisco – September
1967[edit]
1967 Newark riots; Newark, New Jersey – July
1967 Plainfield riots; Plainfield, New Jersey – July
12th Street riot; Detroit, Michigan – July
1967 New York City riot; Harlem, New York City – July
Cambridge riot of 1967; Cambridge, Maryland – July
1967 Rochester riot; Rochester, New York – July
1967 Pontiac riot; Pontiac, Michigan – July
1967 Toledo riot; Toledo, Ohio – July
1967 Flint riot; Flint, Michigan – July
1967 Grand Rapids riot; Grand Rapids, Michigan – July
1967 Houston riot; Houston, Texas – July
1967 Englewood riot; Englewood, New Jersey – July
1967 Tucson riot; Tucson, Arizona – July
1967 Milwaukee riot; Milwaukee, Wisconsin – July
Minneapolis North Side riots; Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota – August
1967 Albina Riot Portland, Oregon – August 30[54]
1968[edit]
Orangeburg massacre; Orangeburg, South Carolina – February
King assassination riots: 125 cities in April and May, in response to the murder of Martin Luther King, Jr. including:
Baltimore riot of 1968; Baltimore Maryland
1968 Washington, D.C. riots; Washington, D.C.
1968 New York City riot; New York City
West Side Riots; Chicago
1968 Detroit riot; Detroit, Michigan
Louisville riots of 1968; Louisville, Kentucky
Hill District MLK riots; Pittsburgh, PA
Summit, Illinois, race riot at Argo High School, September 1968
1968 Miami riot
1968 Democratic National Convention
1969[edit]
1969 York race riot; York, Pennsylvania – July
1969 Hartford Riots, September 1–4, Hartford, Connecticut
1970[edit]
Augusta riot; Augusta, Georgia – May
Jackson State killings; Jackson, Mississippi – May
Asbury Park riot; Asbury Park, New Jersey – July
Chicano Moratorium, an anti Vietnam War protest turned riot in East Los Angeles – August
1971[edit]
East LA Riots, January 31, East Los Angeles, California
Bridgeport Riots, May 20–21, Bridgeport, Connecticut
Chattanooga riot,[55] May 21–24, Chattanooga, Tennessee
Albuquerque Riots,[56] June 13–14, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Oxnard Riots, July 19, Oxnard, California
Riverside Riots, August 8–9, Riverside, California
Camden riots, August 19–22, Camden, New Jersey
1972[edit]
Escambia High School riots; Pensacola, Florida
Blackstone Park Riots, July 16–18, Boston, Massachusetts
1973[edit]
Santos Rodriguez riot, Dallas, Texas July 28, 1973
Post-Civil Rights Era: 1974–1988[edit]
Boston busing crisis
Racial violence in Marquette Park, Chicago
1977[edit]
New York City Blackout riot
1978[edit]
Moody Park riots; Houston, Texas
1980[edit]
Miami riot 1980 – following the acquittal of four Miami-Dade Police officers in the death of Arthur McDuffie. McDuffie, an African-American, died from injuries sustained at the hands of four white officers trying to arrest him after a high-speed chase.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Since 1988[edit]
1991: Crown Heights riot – May – between West Indian immigrants and the area’s large Hasidic Jewish community, over the accidental killing of a Guyanese immigrant child by an Orthodox Jewish motorist. In its wake, several Jews were seriously injured; one Orthodox Jewish man, Yankel Rosenbaum, was killed; and a non-Jewish man, allegedly mistaken by rioters for a Jew, was killed by a group of African-American men.
1991: Overtown, Miami – In the heavily Black section against Cuban Americans, like earlier riots there in 1982 and 1984.
1992: 1992 Los Angeles riots – April 29 to May 5 – a series of riots, lootings, arsons and civil disturbance that occurred in Los Angeles County, California in 1992, following the acquittal of police officers on trial regarding the assault of Rodney King.
1995: St. Petersburg, Florida riot of 1996, caused by protests against racial profiling and police brutality.
2001: 2001 Cincinnati riots – April – in the African-American section of Over-the-Rhine.
2009: Oakland, CA – Riots following the BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant.
2012 Anaheim, California Riot—followed the shooting of two Hispanic males
2014: Ferguson, MO riots – Riots following the Shooting of Michael Brown
2015: 2015 Baltimore riots – Riots following the death of Freddie Gray
2015: Ferguson unrest – Riots following the anniversary of the Shooting of Michael Brown
2016: 2016 Milwaukee riots – Riots following the fatal shooting of 23 year old Sylville Smith.
2016: Charlotte riot, September 20–21, Riots started in response to the shooting of Keith Lamont Scott by police
2020: 2020 Twin Cities riots – Ongoing civil disorder sparked by the death of George Floyd by police, numerous disturbances broke out in other urban centers.

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